Cargo Securing Methods
There are two kinds of securing a cargo: friction-fitted and form-fitted.
Friction-fitted securing is achieved by lashing straps that press the cargo onto the loading surface.
This leads to a higher frictional force, giving the part to be secured a better hold.
Form-fitted cargo securing is achieved by supports such as front or side wall supports that hold the cargo in place.
When lashing down, the cargo is not secured by the lashing straps but by the clamping and frictional forces. The pre-tension force is essential here.
Prerequisite: Four lashing straps. From the corners, they are clamped diagonally onto the loading surface.
In this case, each one of the four corners is secured by one lashing strap.
When strapping diagonally, both lashing angles α and β must be measured for determining the course of the lashing strap.
Prerequisite: Eight lashing straps. The tension of the lashing straps from the cargo to the loading surface takes place in a way that they are perpendicular to all four edges of the loading surface.
The sling lash is a type of direct lash.
The lashing devices are located in front, behind or on the side of the cargo and then fixed to the anchoring points on the vehicle. This type of securing the cargo originated in marine transport, where it is also described as head lashing or bight lashing.
Sling lashes with head slings
The head slings serve as a ‘substitute for bulkheads’ if the cargo cannot not be loaded longitudinally because of the distributed load. A head sling can secure the cargo in the direction of travel or in the opposite direction. The lashing devices must be positioned in front of the cargo or behind it and fixed to the anchoring points on the vehicle in the case of head slings.
The head sling serves to secure the cargo in the direction of travel in this case.
The cargo must be secured separately on the side and back.
Sling lashes with lateral slings
Sling lashes serve as a ‘substitute for bulkheads’ if the cargo cannot be loaded on the side in an interlocking manner.
A lateral sling can only secure the cargo on the side. The lashing devices are positioned around the cargo and fixed to the anchoring points on the vehicle.
The lateral slings are intended for securing the cargo on the side.
The cargo has to be secured separately in the direction of travel and in the opposite direction.
Combination of head slings and lateral slings
A combination of head slings (green) and lateral slings (lilac) offers the possibility of securing
the cargo by lashing it directly if it does not have any anchoring points for the lashing devices.